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Scientific References to Dwarf Birch

Dwarf birch in flower

Dwarf birch with female flowers

List created and maintained by Trees for Life, email: info@treesforlife.org.uk.


Aiken,S.G., Dallwitz,M.J., Consaul,L.L., McJannet,C.L., Gillespie,L.J., Boles,R.L., Argus, G.W . Gillett, J.M., Scott,P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Brysting, A.K. and Solstad, H. (1999 onwards.) Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

Alsos, I.G., Spjelkavik, S., & Engelskj¯n, T. (2003) Seed bank size and composition of Betula nana, Vaccinium uliginosum, and Campanula rotundifolia habitats in Svalbard and northern Norway. Can. J. Bot./Rev. Can. Bot. 81(3): 220-231

Alsos, I.G., Spjelkavik, S., & Engelskj¯n, T. (2002) Conservation Genetics and Population History of Betula nana, Vaccinium uliginosum, and Campanula rotundifolia in the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 34: 408-418

Anamthawat-JÛnsson K. & ThÛr ThÛrsson A. (2003) Natural hybridisation in birch: triploid hybrids between Betula nana and B. pubescens Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. Vol 75. (2)

Anamthawat-Jonsson, K. & Tomasson, T. (1990) Molecular cytogenetics of Iceland birch species - Physical mapping by in-situ hybridization and rDNA polymorphism. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25: 101-108

Anamthawat-Jonsson, K. & Tomasson, T. (1990) Cytogenetics of hybrid introgression in Icelandic birch. Hereditas Landskrona 112: 65-70

Anderson D.J., Cooke, R.C., Elkington, T.T. & Read, D.J. (1966) Studies on the structure in plant communities II. The structure of some dwarf heath and birch corpse communities in Skjaldfannardalur, North-West Iceland. Journal of Ecology 54: 701-793

Ashmole, P. (2006) The lost mountain woodland of Scotland and its restoration. Scottish Forestry, 60 (1): 9-22

Aston. D. (1984) Betula nana L., a note on its status in the United Kingdom. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 85B: 43-47.


Beerling, D.J. (1993) Changes in the stomatal density of Betula nana leaves in response to increases in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration since the late glacial. Special papers in Paleontology 49: 181-187.

Bennel, A.P. & Miller, C.S. (1984) Fungal pathogens of birch in Britain. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 85B: 153-167

Bhat, K.M. & Karkkainen, M. (1982) Wood anatomy and physical properties of the wood and bark in Betula nana growing in Finland. Silva Fennicia 16: 1-10

Bret-Harte, M. S., Shaver, G.R., Zoerner, J,P., Johnstone, J,f,. Wagner, J,L., Chavez, A,S., Gunkelman IV, R,F., Lippert ,S,C., & Laundre, J,A. (2001) Developmental Plasticity allows Betula nana to dominate tundra subjected to an altered environment. ESA Journal: Ecology. Vol 82 (1)

Birks, H.J.B. (1968) The identification of Betula nana pollen. New Phytol. 67(20): 309-314

Boivin, B. (1967) Notes sur les Betula. Naturaliste Canadien 94: 229-231

Brinkman, K.A. (1974) Betula L. Birch. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States (ed.C.S.Schompmeyer). UDSA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook no.450: 252-257

Brodie, I. (1994) Management guidelines for birch. The Birch Improvement Company, Cuilalunn, Scotland


Caseldine, C. (2001) Changes in Betula in the Holocene record from Icelandóa palaeoclimatic record or evidence for early Holocene hybridisation? Review of Palaeobotany and palynology. vol 117 (1-3)


De Groot W.J., Thomas, P.A. & Wein, R.W. (1997) Betula nana L. and Betula glandulosa Michx. Journal of Ecology 85: 241-264


Elkington, T.T. (1968) Introgressive hybridisation of between Betula nana L and B. Pubescens Ehrh. in North-West Iceland. New Phytol. 67: 109-118


Gilbert, D. (ed.) (2002) Montane scrub: The Challenge above the Treeline. Highland Birchwoods, Munlochy

Gimmingham, C.H. (1984) Ecological aspects of birch. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 85B: 65-72

Gimmingham, G.H. (1964) Dwarf- shrub Heaths. The Vegetation of Scotland Chapter 7 pp 232-245

Graglia, E., Julkunen-Tiitto, R., Shaver, G.R., Schmidt, I.K., Jonasson, S. & Michelsen, A. (2001) Environmental control and intersite variations of phenolics in Betula nana in tundra ecosystems. (PDF, 567 kB) New Phytologist 151: 227- 236


Hobbie S,E., Chapin E, S. (1998) The response of tundra plant biomass, aboveground production, nitrogen, and CO[2] flux to experimental warming. Ecology. Vol 79 (5).

Holman, J. (1996) Symydobius nanae sp. n. (Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea: Aphididae) and other aphids living on Betula nana in the Sumava National Park, Czech Republic. Eur. J. Entomol. Vol 93: 239-248.

Hutchinson, T. (1966) The occurrence of living and sub-fossil remains of Betula nana L. in Upper Teesdale. New Phytol. 65: 351-357


Jonasson, S. (1981) Plant Communities and Species Distribution of Low Alpine Betula nana Heaths in Northernmost Sweden. Vegetatio 44: 51-64


Kenworthy, J. B. Aston, D. & Bucknall, S.A. (1972) A study of hybrids between Betula pubescens Ehrh and Betula nana L. From Sutherland - an integrated approach. Trans Bot. Soc. Edinb 41: 517-539

Kirkpatrick, A.H. & Heal, K. (2001) Dwarf Birch (Betula nana) performance in relation to soil water and soil nutrients. Scottish Natural Heritage Research Survey and Monitoring Report No 170. Battleby

Kirkpatrick, H. & Heal, K. (2002) Recent studies of Dwarf Birch (Betula nana) at Blargie Craig. Scrubbers Bulletin, D.K. Mardon (ed.)


Manseau, M., Huot, J. & Cr'te M. (1996) Effects of Summer Grazing by Caribou on Composition and Productivity of Vegetation: Community and Landscape Level. Journal Of Ecology, 84: 503-513

Marcoux, N. & Richard, P, J,H. (1993) A new loook at Betula pollen curves. INQUA Working Group on Data-Handling Methods, Newsletter 10

Misund, S., Nilsen, J. & Junttila O. (2001) Studies of apical growth cessation in dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) from Spitsbergen and northern Norway. Man and the biosphere series, 27: 195-205 Finnmark University College, Norway


Purvinas, E.M. (1971) Hybridisation of the dwarf birch, Betula nana. Genetika i selektsiya. Materialy 1st mezhrospub. konferesntsii po problemam genetiki i selektsii pp 265-266


ThÛrsson, ∆. TH., P·lsson ,S., Sigurgeirsson, A. and Anamthawat-JÛnsson, K. (2007) Morphological Variation among Betula nana (diploid), B. pubescens (tetraploid) and their Triploid Hybrids in Iceland. Annals of Botany vol 99


van Dinter, M., and Birks, H, H. (2004) Distinguishing fossil Betula nana and B. pubescens using their wingless fruits: implications for the late-glacial vegetational history of western Norway. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. Vol 5. (3)


Watson Featherstone, A. (2000) Dwarf Birch (Betula nana) Caledonian Forest species profile, Trees For Life

Wood, C. (2002) The Effect of Burning and Grazing on Dwarf Birch (Betula nana). Unpublished honours thesis, University of Stirling


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Published: 27 March 2004
Last updated: 09 December 2011

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