Response from Trees for Life to the public consultation (1998) about beaver reintroduction to Scotland
Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) conducted a public consultation process during the first half of 1998 in the UK and particularly in Scotland to gauge public support for the reintroduction of the European beaver. Though the final results and report of that exercise are yet to be published, initial response showed an overwhelming public support for the beaver's return. SNH have now approved in principle a five year trial project, due to begin in 2002, whereby up to 50 beavers will be brought from Norway and radio-tagged before release so that their impact on the environment can be monitored.
A big thank you to all our supporters who contributed their views to the public consultation!
Below is Trees for Life's detailed response to this consultation process.
Trees for Life strongly supports the recommendation from Scottish Natural Heritage that European beavers be reintroduced to Scotland, and that such a reintroduction should take place within the next three years.
Furthermore, we strongly urge that the beaver reintroduction be accompanied by a specific, focussed programme to achieve a substantial expansion of riparian woodland ecosystems, in order to ensure the long-term viability of a reintroduced beaver population.
Details of our response supporting the proposed reintroduction
Beavers play an important role in riparian ecosystems, and their extirpation in Scotland is a significant factor in the historical depletion of the country's natural biological diversity. From an ecological perspective, we believe that the reintroduction of beavers is essential to return our rivers to an optimum state of health again. Their return will have benefits for a wide range of other species, including fish populations and mammals such as water voles and otters. In North America, beavers are considered to be `keystone species' in conservation biology terms, and we believe that European beavers were originally of similar importance in riparian ecosystems in Scotland.
Scotland is one of the most biologically-impoverished countries in Europe, with almost all of our large mammals having been hunted to extinction, and only 1% of our native forest still surviving. We believe there is a moral and ethical obligation now to reverse the degradation of the past, wherever possible, and this is also reflected in the European Community's Species and Habitats directive, where the UK has an obligation to consider reintroducing extirpated species of wildlife. Of all our extirpated mammal species, the European beaver is perhaps the simplest and least problematical in terms of a reintroduction, and as such it provides an ideal first step in the direction of reinstating our missing species of fauna, and thereby returning our country to an improved state of ecological health.
Since the 1920s, beaver reintroductions have taken place in 13 other European countries, without major problems or serious conflicts with other land uses. As a result, viable beaver populations have been reestablished in every country concerned, except possibly the Netherlands (where the reintroduction is too recent to evaluate fully) and Switzerland (where the numbers are small, although they had doubled between the time of the first reintroduction, in 1956, and 1993) 1.
As beavers have been proven to thrive in European countries such as France and Germany, which are more densely-populated and cultivated than Scotland, we believe that the successful results obtained on the continent will be repeated here, if a carefully planned and monitored beaver reintroduction is carried out. However, beyond that, considerable experience has been gained from those previous reintroduction programmes, and this will be of direct benefit to a Scottish reintroduction, thereby enabling it to have the best chance of success.
Trees for Life's Executive Director, Alan Watson Featherstone, was one of the participants in February 1996 in a study tour to a beaver reintroduction site in Brittany, France. The beavers there live in a mainly agricultural landscape, and through site visits and meetings with local farmers etc, the tour participants were able to ascertain that the beavers caused very few problems. The participants observed a small amount of damage to trees in a conifer plantation, which in terms of the overall size of the plantation would best be described as trivial, and also learned of a problem when beavers had blocked a culvert under a road, causing temporary flooding. Beaver dams and lodges were also observed, with the former being small in height and breached by water flows at the time of the tour. Conversations with local people and the scientists monitoring the beavers confirmed that the dams did not impede the movements of brown trout in the river.
The participants were left at the end of the tour with no doubt that European beavers could be successfully reintroduced to Scotland, and this first-hand experience forms an important underpinning of our support for the current proposal from SNH.
As beavers are entirely herbivorous and generally shy mammals, they pose no threat to people, or to economically important stocks of animals or fish through predation. In the unlikely event that a reintroduced population of beavers were to cause serious problems of some unforeseen sort, their specific riparian habitat requirements and relatively small home territories would make them easy to trap and remove. In other words, a beaver reintroduction would be readily controllable and even reversible, if it were to go wrong (although we know of no evidence to suggest that this would be the case).
While concerns have been raised about the possible negative effects of beavers on fish populations, such as brown trout and Atlantic salmon, in practice these concerns are not sustained out by the evidence from other beaver reintroduction sites. During the beaver tour to Brittany referred to in section 4 above, the participants learned first-hand that the beavers there pose no problems for brown trout, and indeed are considered beneficial for trout fisheries 2.
Although the location visited in Brittany did not contain interacting populations of beavers and Atlantic salmon, experience in Norway (where the conditions more closely resemble Scotland than do those in Brittany) shows that beaver populations are not considered a problem for salmon stocks there 3.
Tourism is a major factor in the Scottish economy, and worldwide nature-related or eco-tourism is the fastest growing sector of the tourist industry. Magazines such as BBC Wildlife are full of advertisements for Nature Holidays both in the UK and abroad, while the Highland Wildlife Park at Kincraig, which contains small captive populations of most of our extirpated mammals (including beavers) receives large numbers of visitors each year. We believe that the reintroduction of beavers to Scotland will have a positive effect on tourism here, with direct financial benefits to the areas where beavers are reintroduced, and to the country's economy in general.
Recommendation for a related programme to accompany a beaver reintroduction
In its research for the proposed beaver reintroduction, SNH has concluded that the existing riparian woodland habitat in Scotland could support up to 1,000 beavers. However, this habitat is widely dispersed and generally does not form large contiguous sections. Furthermore, the report also indicated that of 17,000 square kilometres of buffered water and wetland in Scotland, only 4% (771 square kilometres) contained broadleaf riparian woodland 4.
This small percentage reflects the widespread loss of native forest which has occurred in Scotland, and we believe that for a beaver reintroduction to be successful in the long term, it will have to be accompanied by a concerted programme of riparian woodland expansion, to provide adequate habitat for a genetically-sustainable population of beavers. Whilst beavers reintroduced in the next 3 years to the sites identified by SNH as potentially suitable should be able to thrive there, the viability of a Scottish beaver population in the long term will depend on a sufficiently large interbreeding pool of individuals being maintained. Given the fragmentary and widely dispersed state of the suitable habitat at present, this is not likely to be achieved without a significant increase in riparian woodland (for example, if beavers were to be reintroduced to the Tay area and the Ness area, these widely separated populations would be unable to interbreed).
Thus, we strongly advocate that a beaver reintroduction be accompanied by a special programme to ensure that the extent of riparian broadleaf woodland in Scotland is substantially increased, with particular emphasis being placed on the areas targeted for beaver reintroductions. Such a programme should focus on linking up existing fragmented sections of riparian woodland to create larger contiguous expanses, and re-establishing some riparian woodland in areas where it is presently completely absent. The programme should have targets set for the riparian woodland cover to be expanded from the present figure of 4% to say 15% or 20% over the next 10 years, and increasing again beyond that. Emphasis should also be placed on tree species such as aspen, which are favoured by beavers. Because of its relative inability to reproduce by seed, aspen is one of the tree species which has suffered most from historical deforestation in Scotland, and is therefore already in need of assistance to ensure its regeneration (Trees for Life has been running a successful aspen propagation programme in the Glen Affric area for several years now). The reintroduction of the European beaver therefore provides an ideal opportunity for the establishment of a concerted programme of riparian woodland expansion, and for the regeneration of important species such as aspen, which are currently under-represented in Scotland's native forests.
Such a programme should be facilitated by a series of incentives, both from SNH itself as part of the beaver reintroduction scheme, and in conjunction with the Forestry Authority's Woodland Grant Scheme (WGS), where special measures could be added to specifically encourage riparian woodland restoration and expansion, and it make it more cost effective for landowners to implement such schemes. Such a programme would not only benefit the return of the beaver, but also, in and of itself, would make a significant contribution to the restoration of Scotland's biological heritage through expanding the area of native riparian woodland and all its associated species of flora and fauna.
NB: We do not see this recommendation as one which should delay the reintroduction of the beaver, but rather it should proceed concurrently with the reintroduction, in an integrated coherent strategy.
MacDonald, D. W. et al (1995) Reintroducing the European Beaver to Britain: nostalgic meddling or restoring biodiversity? Mammal Review, 25, 161-199.
Jones, P. (1996) A preliminary assessment of the possible impacts of reintroduced European beavers Castor fiber on freshwater salmon fisheries in the UK. A report to the Atlantic Salmon Trust on the "Brittany Beaver Tour", 21-24 February 1996.
Jonsson, Prof. B (1995) Norwegian experience with beavers in salmon rivers. Personal communication.
Webb, A., French, D.D. and Flitsch, A.C.C. (1997) Identification and assessment of possible beaver sites in Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage Research, Survey and Monitoring Report No. 94.
Pages about European Beaver on this site
- Restoring Missing Species: The Beaver
- European Beaver - species profile
- Beaver - species missing from the Caledonian Forest
- Mythology and folklore of the beaver
- Riparian Woodlands
- Beavers: Aspen heaven or hell?
- Beavers and Aspen: looking to the future
- Beavers are Back! Caledonia Wild! Summer 2009
- Beaver trial a milestone for Scottish biodiversity Press release 29th May 2009
- Beavers to return to Scotland at last! Caledonia Wild! Summer 2008
- Press release: trial reintroduction of beavers (29th May 2008)
- Scottish executive says no to beavers Caledonia Wild! Winter 2005
- Trees for Life calls for approval of a trial reintroduction of the European beaver 1 March 2005
- Beaver reintroduction decision delayed Caledonia Wild! Spring 2003
- Response from Trees for Life to the public consultation (1998) about beaver reintroduction to Scotland
- Beaver news Caledonia Wild! Winter 2000-01
- Reintroduction of the European Beaver (Castor fiber) into Scotland
External links to pages about European Beaver in the UK
- The Scottish Beaver Trial
- The Scottish Wildlife Trust's Beaver Campaign
- Scottish Executive approves a trial reintroduction of beavers (25th May 2008)
- Beavers believed to be on loose (18 April 2008)
- 6 Beavers released into an enclosed lake at Lower Mill Estate in the Cotswold Water Park, October 2005
- Beavers released into an enclosure at Aigas, Scotland, April 2006
- New Scottish Environment Minister, Michael Russell, calls for SNH to draw up new beaver reintroduction plans (Sunday Herald, June 2007)
If you have found the information on this page and/or website useful please consider making a donation, for example to our current appeal and/or becoming a member of Trees for Life, to help us further our work of restoring the Caledonian Forest. You can join or make a donation on-line via our secure server if you like, or contact Trees for Life by post, phone or email at the address below.
Last updated: Wednesday, 25-Aug-2010 16:57:18 CEST